DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2312-413x.5.5.2017.121629

Modern approaches to the treatment of dehydration in children and adults

S.O. Kramariov

Abstract


Dehydration is the cause of many lethal outcomes, primarily due to diarrhea. The significant achievement that made it possible to save millions of human lives was the creation of oral rehydration salt (ORS). ORS for the treatment of dehydration in infectious diarrhea was created at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh in the late 60s of the XX century for the treatment of cholera. Subsequently, for the treatment of non-cholera diarrhea, an improved ORS formula was developed. According to the World Health Organization, as compared with a standard ORS solution, a solution that has reduced osmolarity can decrease the need for intravenous infusion by 33 %. In addition, this solution also reduces the incidence of vomiting by 30 % and stool frequency by 20 %. 68.5 % of children with respiratory diseases, who were admitted to an infectious hospital, had signs of dehydration. In common with diarrhea, dehydration in respiratory diseases is one of the indicators of severity of the patient’s condition. Oral rehydration is currently used in different countries of the world in 99 % of children suffering from diarrhea. Timely and adequate rehydration therapy is a primary and most important part in the treatment of dehydration in both children and adults. Early use of adequate rehydration therapy is a prerequisite for the rapid and successful treatment of the disease.

Keywords


dehydration; oral rehydration salt; diarrhea; respiratory diseases

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