Immune response of adult people living with human immunodeficiency virus to the introduction of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (review of literature)


  • G.O. Revenko State Institution “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine”, Dnipro, Ukraine
  • V.V. Mavrutenkov State Institution “Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine”, Dnipro, Ukraine



HIV-infection, vaccination, immunity, diphtheria, tetanus, review


The increase in the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) and significant increase in their life expectancy on the background of antiretroviral therapy raises the issue of vaccination of these patients. To prepare the article, we searched for information using Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, Global Health, Google Scholar, CyberLeninka databases. The analysis of scientific and practical literature shows that PLHIV are often considered to experience a loss of immunological memory of previous immunizations and a less effective immune response, even after the restoration of the immune system when using antiretroviral therapy, which may require additional measures, such as: assessment of the level of specific antibodies, revaccination, or increasing the dose of vaccines. This review emphasizes the importance of vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus as an important preventive strategy among PLHIV in adulthood.


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