Probiotics and infectious diseases


  • S.O. Kramarov Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine,
  • V.V. Yevtushenko Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine,
  • O.M. Yevtushenko Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine,
  • L.V. Zakordonets Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine,



probiotics, infectious diseases, review


The article deals with the use of probiotics in the practice of infectious diseases. Information is presented on the mechanisms of probiotic action, namely, on strengthening the epithelial barrier, inhibition of adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms, competitive suppression of the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, production of antibacterial substances and modulation of the immune response.


Alakomi HL, Skytta E, Saarela M, Mattila-Sandholm T, Latva-Kala K, Helander IM. Lactic acid permeabilizes gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000 May;66(5):2001-5.

Allen SJ, Martinez EG, Gregorio GV, Dans LF. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Nov 10;(11):CD003048. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003048.pub3.

Ayabe T, Satchell DP, Wilson CL, Parks WC, Selsted ME, Ouellette AJ. Secretion of microbicidal alphadefensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2000 Aug;1(2):113-8. doi: 10.1038/77783.

Bermudez-Brito M, Plaza-Díaz J, Muñoz-Quezada S, Gómez-Llorente C, Gil A. Probiotic mechanisms of action. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;61(2):160-74. doi: 10.1159/000342079.

Biswas A, Petnicki-Ocwieja T, Kobayashi KS. Nod2: a key regulator linking microbiota to intestinal mucosal immunity. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Jan;90(1):15-24. doi: 10.1007/s00109-011-0802-y.

Chapman CM, Gibson GR, Rowland I. Health benefits of probiotics: are mixtures more effective than single strains? Eur J Nutr. 2011 Feb;50(1):1-17. doi: 10.1007/s00394-010-0166-z.

Chenoll E, Casinos B, Bataller E, et al. Novel probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7366 strain active against the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori . Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Feb;77(4):1335-43. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01820-10.

Dal Bello F, Clarke CI, Ryan LAM, et al. Improvement of the quality and shelf life of wheat bread by fermentation with the antifungal strain Lactobacillus plantarum FST 1,7. J Cereal Sci.2007;45(3):309-318. doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2006.09.004.

Di Pierro F, Colombo M, Zanvit A, Rottoli AS. Positive clinical outcomes derived from using Streptococcus salivarius K12 to prevent streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children: a pilot investigation. Drug Healthc Patient Saf. 2016 Nov 21;8:77-81. doi: 10.2147/DHPS.S117214.

Sýkora J, Valecková K, Amlerová J, et al. Effects of a specially designed fermented milk product containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 and the eradication of H. pylori in children: a prospective randomized double-blind study. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Sep;39(8):692-8.

Furrie E, Macfarlane S, Kennedy A, et al. Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Gut. 2005 Feb;54(2):242-9. doi: 10.1136/gut.2004.044834.

Ganz T. Defensins: antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Sep;3(9):710-20. doi: 10.1038/nri1180.

Gallo RL, Hooper LV. Epithelial antimicrobial defence of the skin and intestine. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Jun 25;12(7):503-16. doi: 10.1038/nri3228.

Greenberg B. Salmonella suppression by known populations of bacteria in flies. J Bacteriol. 1969 Sep;99(3):629-35.

Hakansson A, Molin G. Gut microbiota and inflammation. Nutrients. 2011 Jun;3(6):637-82. doi: 10.3390/nu3060637.

Hirano J, Yoshida T, Sugiyama T, Koide N, Mori I, Yokochi T. The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection of human intestinal cells in vitro. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47(6):405-9.

Islam SU. Clinical Uses of Probiotics. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Feb;95(5):e2658. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002658.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Health Organization. Probiotics in food : health and nutritional properties and guidelines for evaluation. FAO food and nutrition paper, 85. Italy, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2006. 56 p.

Kagan BL, Selsted ME, Ganz T, Lehrer RI. Antimicrobial defensin peptides form voltage-dependent ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan;87(1):210-4.

Kim YS, Ho SB. Intestinal goblet cells and mucins in health and disease: recent insights and progress. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2010 Oct;12(5):319-30. doi: 10.1007/s11894-010-0131-2.

Lebeer S, Vanderleyden J, De Keersmaecker CJ. Host interactions of probiotic bacterial surface molecules: comparison with commensals and pathogens. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 Mar;8(3):171-84. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2297.

Mack DR, Ahrne S, Hyde L, Wei S, Hollingsworth MA. Extracellular MUC3 mucin secretion follows adherence of Lactobacillus strains to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Gut. 2003 Jun;52(6):827-33.

Magnusson J, Schnürer J. Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis strain Si3 produces a broad-spectrum proteinaceous antifungal compound. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Jan;67(1):1-5. doi: 10.1128/AEM.67.1.1-5.2001.

Muñoz JA, Chenoll E, Casinos B, et al. Novel probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 strain active against rotavirus infections. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Dec;77(24):8775-83. doi: 10.1128/AEM.05548-11.

Prema P, Smila D, Palavesam A, Immanuel G. Production and characterization of an antifungal compound (3-phenyllactic acid) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strain. Food Bioprocess Technol 2010;3(3):379-386.

Rautava S, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Specific probiotics in reducing the risk of acute infections in infancy--a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jun;101(11):1722-6. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508116282.

Roy A, Chaudhuri J, Sarkar D, Ghosh P, Chakraborty S. Role of Enteric Supplementation of Probiotics on Late-onset Sepsis by Candida species in Preterm Low Birth Weight Neonates: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. N Am J Med Sci. 2014 Jan;6(1):50-7. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.125870.

Sanders ME. How do we know when something called “probiotic” is really a probiotic? A guideline for consumers and health care professionals. Functional Food Reviews. 2009;1(1):3-12. doi: 10.2310/6180.2009.00002.

Schiffrin EJ, Blum S. Interactions between the microbiota and the intestinal mucosa. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Aug;56 Suppl 3:S60-4. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601489.

Servin AL. Antagonistic activities of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria against microbial pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;28(4):405-40. doi: 10.1016/j.femsre.2004.01.003.

Sjogren J, Magnusson J, Broberg A, Schnurer J, Kenne L. Antifungal 3-hydroxy fatty acids from Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 14. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Dec;69(12):7554-7.

Stetinova V, Smetanova L, Kvetina J, Svoboda Z, Zidek Z, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H. Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity and effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 components. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31 Suppl 2:51-6.

Szajewska H, Kotowska M, Mrukowicz JZ, Armanska M, Mikolajczyk W. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants. J Pediatr. 2001 Mar;138(3):361-5. doi: 10.1067/mpd.2001.111321.

Szymański H, Pejcz J, Jawień M, Chmielarczyk A, Strus M, Heczko PB. Treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in infants and children with a mixture of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jan 15;23(2):247-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02740.x.

Tohno M, Shimasato T, Aso H, Kitazawa H. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus strains augment NLRP3 expression in newborn and adult porcine gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011 Dec 15;144(3-4):410-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.09.010.

Tsai CC, Lin PP, Hsieh YM. Three Lactobacillus strains from healthy infant stool inhibit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli grown in vitro. Anaerobe. 2008 Apr;14(2):61-7. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2007.11.003.

Voltan S, Castagliuolo I, Elli M, et al. Aggregating phenotype in Lactobacillus crispatus determines intestinal colonization and TLR2 and TLR4 modulation in murine colonic mucosa. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007 Sep;14(9):1138-48. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00079-07.

Wang Y, Li X, Ge T, et al. Probiotics for prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Aug;95(31):e4509. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004509.

Weizman Z, Asli G, Alsheikh A. Effect of a probiotic infant formula on infections in child care centers: comparison of two probiotic agents. Pediatrics. 2005 Jan;115(1):5-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-1815.

Yan F, Polk DB. Probiotic bacterium prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 27;277(52):50959-65. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M207050200.

Yan F, Cao H, Cover TL, Whitehead R, Washington MK, Polk DB. Soluble proteins produced by probiotic bacteria regulate intestinal epithelial cell survival and growth. Gastroenterology. 2007 Feb;132(2):562-75. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2006.11.022.

Zhang GQ, Hu HJ, Liu CY, Shakya S, Li ZY. Probiotics for Preventing Late-Onset Sepsis in Preterm Neonates: A PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Feb;95(8):e2581. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002581.

Zyrek AA, Cichon C, Helms S, Enders C, Sonnenborn U, Schmidt MA. Molecular mechanisms underlying the probiotic effects of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 involve ZO-2 and PKC redistribution resulting in tight junction and epithelial barrier repair. Cell Microbiol. 2007 Mar;9(3):804-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00836.x.

Berezhnyj VV, Kramarev SO, Shun'ko JeJe, Martynjuk VJu, Jankovs'kyj DS, Dyment GS. Microecological disorders in children and modern ways to increase the effectiveness of their correction. Zdorovʹe ženŝiny. 2002;(12):79-92.

Gun'ko EE, Tyshhenko VA, Ralduhina L, et al. The use of probiotics Simbiter for the prevention and correction of microbiocenosis disorders in newborns: Methodical recommendations. Kyiv; 2001. 20 p.

Lukyanova OM, editor. Zbirnyk prac' naukovo-praktychnoi' konferencii': Rol' probiotykiv v ohoroni zdorov’ja materi ta dytyny [Collection of works of the scientific and practical conference: The role of probiotics in the protection of mother and child health]. Kyiv; 2006. 56 p.

Korniyenko ЕА. Modern principles of selecting suitable probiotics. Detskie infektsii. 2007;6(3):63-68.

Kostiuk OP, Chernysheva LI, Volokha AP. Physiological and therapeutic properties of Lactobacillus. Pediatriya. 1998.(1):71 -76.

Kramarev SA, Vygovskaya OV, Berezhnoi VV, et al. Comparative potency assignment of various schemes of prophilactic administration of multiprobiotic Symbiter in the double-blind placebo-controlled study in children. Sovremennaya pediatriya. 2011;(1):111-117.

Kramarev SA, Vygovskaya O, Yankovskyi DS, Dyment GS. Experience of the use of multiprobiotic Simbiter® in the clinic of children's diseases. Sovremennaya pediatriya. 2013;(4):114-119.

Kovalenko GV. Effectiveness of complex diet-probiotic therapy (Symbiter) in children with severe forms of allergic dermatitis. Kyiv; 1998. 102-104 pp.

Lykova EA, Murashova AO, Bondarenko VM, et al. Violation of intestinal microflora and immunity in children with allergic dermatitis and their correction. Rossiiskii Pediatricheskii Zhurnal. 2000;(2):20-24.

Martynyuk VYu, Kozachuk VG, Maistr OA, Sokhno TO, Naumenko NV. The experience of using the probiotic "Symbiter" in biocenosis correction in children with cerebral palsy. In: Social pediatrics. Кyiv; 2001. 395-398 pp.

Muzika NM, Denisova MF, Lysyana TO. Application of the multicomponent probiotic Symbiter in the treatment of chronic hepatitis in children. Perinatologiya i Pediatriya. 2003;(4):80-81.

Shunko EE, Krasnova YuYu, Yankovsky DS, et al. The use of multi-probiotics Symbiter in the treatment of newborns with perinatal pathology. Zdorovʹe ženŝiny. 2005;(8):95-97.

Shunko EE. Application of Symbiotic "Symbiter" for the prevention of correction of microbiocenosis disorders in newborns: Guidelines. Kyiv; 2001. 12 p.

Shunko EE, Yankovsky DS, et al. Application of a probiotic Symbitter for the prevention and correction of microbiocenosis in newborns: Guidelines. Kyiv; 2001. 20 p.