Acute tonsillopharyngitis in children. The current state of the problem
Keywords:tonsillopharyngitis, treatment, children
AbstractAcute tonsillopharyngitis is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. Viral etiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main causative agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, which causes about 30 % of episodes. Diphtheria and necrobacillosis are infrequent but they are associated with severe course of disease. In the process of diagnosis, clinical evaluation scales can help clinicians better predict suspected bacterial etiology by selecting patients. The use of management algorithms may be useful for identifying and screening cases that do not require antibiotic therapy. Beta-lactam antibiotics or macrolides are recommended for the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. Proper diagnosis of bacterial tonsillopharyngitis and correct use of antibiotics based on available scientific evidence are crucial.
Pediatric Pharyngitis: Background, Pathophysiology and Etiology, Epidemiology. URL: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/967384-overview#a4 (Last accessed: 21.10.2019).
Wolford R., Schaefer T. Pharyngitis — StatPearls — NCBI Bookshelf. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519550 (Last accessed: 22.10.2019).
Regoli M., Chiappini E., Bonsignori F., Galli L., De Martino M. Update on the management of acute pharyngitis in children. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2011. Vol. 37.
Lion T. Adenovirus infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2014 Jul 1. 27(3). 441-62. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 24982316 (Last accessed: 10.07.2017).
Kronman M.P., Zhou C., Mangione-Smith R. Bacterial Prevalence and Antimicrobial Prescribing Trends for Acute Respiratory Tract. Infections. Pediatrics. 2014 Oct 1. 134(4). e956-65. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225144 (Last accessed: 03.03.2019).
Anjos L.M.M., Marcondes M.B., Lima M.F., Mondelli A.L., Okoshi M.P. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis. Rev. Soc. Bras Med. Trop. 2014 Jul 1. 47(4). 409-13.
Nishiyama M., Morioka I., Taniguchi-Ikeda M., Mori T., Tomioka K., Nakanishi K. et al. Clinical features predicting group A streptococcal pharyngitis in a Japanese paediatric primary emergency medical centre. J. Int. Med. Res. 2018 May 1. 46(5). 1791-800.
Van T.T., Cox L.M., Cox M.E., Bard J.D. Prevalence of fusobacterium necrophorum in children presenting with pharyngitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2017 Apr 1. 55(4). 1147-53.
Al Duwaiki S.M., Al Barwani A.S., Taif S. Lemierre’s syndrome. Oman Med. J. 2018. 33(6). 523-6.
Coultas J.A., Bodasing N., Horrocks P., Cadwgan A. Lemierre’s Syndrome: Recognising a Typical Presentation of a Rare Condition. Case Rep. Infect. Dis. 2015. 2015. 1-5.
Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of diphtheria — UpToDate. URL: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-diphtheria (Last accessed: 21.10.2019).
Diphtheria | Clinical Features | CDC. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/diphtheria/clinicians.html (Last accessed: 21.10.2019).
Epiglottitis (supraglottitis): Clinical features and diagnosis — UpToDate. URL: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ epiglottitis-supraglottitis-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?search= pharyngitis children&topicRef=6457&source=see_link (Last accessed: 22.10.2019).
Jain H., Knorr T.L., Sinha V. Retropharyngeal Abscess. StatPearls. 2019. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 28722903 (Last accessed: 22.10.2019)
Boon C., Wan Mohamad W.E., Mohamad I. Bilateral peritonsillar abscess: A rare emergency. Malaysian Fam. Рhysician: Off. J. Acad. Fam. Physicians Malaysia. 2018. 13(1). 41-4. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29796210 (Last accessed: 22.10.2019).
Fine A.M., Nizet V., Mandl K.D. Large-scale validation of the centor and mcisaac scores to predict group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Arch. Intern. Med. 2012 Jun 11. 172(11). 847-52.
Short S., Bashir H., Marshall P., Miller N., Olmschenk D., Prigge K. et al. Respiratory Illness in Children and Adults, Diagnosis and Treatment of | ICSI. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, 2017. URL: https://www.icsi.org/guideline/respiratory-illness (Last accessed: 22.10.2019).
Shulman S.T., Bisno A.L., Clegg H.W., Gerber M.А., Kaplan E.L., Lee G. et al. PSPED — INFECT — LG — IDSA pharyngitis 2012. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2012 Nov. 55(10). e86-102. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965026 (Last accessed: 22.10.2019).
Overview | Sore throat (acute): antimicrobial prescribing | Guidance | NICE. 2018. URL: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng84 (Last accessed: 22.10.2019).
Group A Strep | Strep Throat | For Clinicians | GAS | CDC. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/strep-throat.html (Last accessed: 23.10.2019).
Altamimi S., Khalil A., Khalaiwi K.A., Milner R.A., Pusic M.V., Al Othman M.A. Short versus standard duration antibiotic therapy for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Altamimi S., editor. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2009. URL: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD004872.pub2 (Last accessed: 24.10.2019).
Drugs.com. Azithromycin Uses, Dosage & Side Effects. URL: https://www.drugs.com/azithromycin.html (Last accessed: 25.02.2019).
McMullan B.K., Mostaghim M. Prescribing azithromycin. Aust. Prescr. 2015 Jun 1. 38(3). 87-9. URL: https://www.nps.org.au/australian-prescriber/magazine/38/3/87/9 (Last accessed: 23.04.2018).
Parnham M.J., Haber V.E., Giamarellos-Bourboulis E.J., Perletti G., Verleden G.M., Vos R. Azithromycin: Mechanisms of action and their relevance for clinical applications. Pharmacol. Ther. 2014 Aug 1. 143(2). 225-45. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163725814000552?via%3Dihub (Last accessed: 25.04.2018).
Зупанец И., Безуглая Н., Либина В., Орлова И., Кудрис И., Кувайсков Ю. Оценка взаимозаменяемости Азимеда — биоэквивалентность доказана! Ліки України. 2013. 1(167). 80-3.
Allen B., Bentley T. Lemierre Syndrome — StatPearls — NCBI Bookshelf. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499846 (Last accessed: 23.10.2019).
Copyright (c) 2019 ACTUAL INFECTOLOGY
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.