The history of rabies control in Ukraine from the time of Pasteur to the present day
Keywords:rabies, rabies vaccine, history of rabies science, rabies epizootic, ways of rabies eradication, reasons of vaccine failure, rabies in Ukraine
Rabies remains the oldest viral zoonotic disease, which always ends in death and which is now widespread throughout the world and causes an annual death of about 60 thousand people. Since rabies eradication in Ukraine continues over 135 years, our goal was to remind about the problems and successes of providing control rabies in different periods of the epizootic process in the last century, to remind the main specific features of infection and show real problems today. Materials for the analysis were archival data of reports of regional sanitary-epidemiological agencies, LV Gromashevsky Institute of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Neuroinfections of IVM NAAS of Ukraine, as well as the reports of regional departments of veterinary medicine of the State Food and Consumer Service of Ukraine. It has been shown that epizootic peaks were observed in certain historical periods. During the first period of urban rabies (dogs), mass vaccinations of dogs in combination with strict regulation of the number of homeless animals proved to be effective. The second period of fox rabies lasted 30 years, of which almost 20 years were relatively successful, which was facilitated by the strictest implementation of measures to regulate the density of foxes in all regions of Ukraine. At the beginning of the XXI century, the intensity of the epizootic process sharpened. At the same time, in all areas, the density of foxes was no longer maintained at an acceptable level and the incidence of foxes increased almost 20 times. Oral vaccination started in 2001, is still not fully implemented. Vaccination of domestic carnivores also does not reach the required level of coverage of 70 % of the population. Homeless animals are also vaccinated, although it has long been proven that under constant stress and hypothermia, the vaccine does not cause the production of antibody titers to a protective level. Thus, currently, the main problem in order to preserve a human from rabies is dogs. Thus, in 2019, 51,232 people were attacked by dogs. In total, in 2019, 73,962 people applied for rabies assistance, and 21,980 people were vaccinated. There were 4039 people with severe bites, of which 1161 were bitten by sick animals with a confirmed diagnosis and 777 people were attacked by wild animals (1938 people were saved from death), and 16,113 people were injured by light bites (73.3 % of the total vaccinated) were given 10 days to determine the danger of the bite, but failed to do so as the animal escaped. Due to this category of victims, the number of vaccinated increases sharply. It is important to note that each bite by a stray dog for the people is a punishment, and a course of rabies vaccinations costs about 6 thousand UAH depending on the degree of the bite, so the question of regulation of the number of stray dogs and the feasibility of their vaccination remains open.
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