Zika Virus Infection

I.B. Yershova, T.F. Osypova

Abstract


Zika virus disease — an infectious disease caused by a virus of the same name from the Flaviviridae family. The main route of transmission of the virus is the infection through the blood during a bite by tropical mosquitoes of Aedes genus and sexual contact with a patient. Only in Brazil in 2015 Zika fever affected a half million people. There is a serious risk of further spread of the infection, for this reason, the disease has been given a status of pandemic. The incubation period is 3 to 12 days. In 75 % of cases, Zika fever is asymptomatic. Symptomatic form is usually occurs in a mild, rarely — in moderate-to-severe form. The symptoms — weakness, often low-grade fever, chills, heada­che, retro-orbital pain, myalgia and arthralgia, maculopapular rash on the face and body. Conjunctivitis, intolerance of bright light develop. Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, cough, sore throat, lymphadenopathy occur less often. Cases of death in people with fever Zika are extremely rare. In areas, where Zika fever outbreak is detected, an increased number of children born with microcephaly is recorded. The disease is diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction. Drugs for the treatment and vaccines for the prevention of the disease do not exist. Conventional antiviral drugs are ineffective. The only way of medical exposure is symptomatic treatment. After recovery, lifelong immunity is formed. Protection against disease is only avoiding mosquito bites in areas where there is Zika fever.


Keywords


Zika virus infection; сlinical signs; diagnosis; treatment; prevention

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2312-413x.2.11.2016.77535

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