Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Hydatid Disease in Human in the Astrakhan Region

R.S. Arakelian, Kh.M. Halimzianov, R.D. Mustafin, S.F. Karpenko, A.R. Kurbanhaliieva, A.S. Arakelian

Abstract


The objective of the study: to describe the current situation on echinococcosis in human in the Astrakhan region. Materials and methods. On the territory of the Astrakhan region from 2008 to 2015 there were registered 72 cases of echinococcus infestation in humans. The majority of cases of human infection with echinococcus was reported in 2014 — 17 (23.6 ± 5.0 %), in 2015 — 11 (15.3 ± 4.2 %) and in 2011 — 10 cases (13.9 ± 4.1 %). In the remaining years, hydatid disease was detected among residents of the Astrakhan region, but with less frequency. So, in 2012 there were registered 9 cases (12.5 ± 3.9 %), in 2010 — 8 (11.1 ± 3.7 %), in 2009 and 2013 — 7 cases in each (9.7 ± 3.5 %) and in 2008 — only 3 cases (4.2 ± 2.4 %). Results of the study. In the sex ratio, females predominated among patients — 69.4 ± 5.4 % (50 cases). The share of men accounted for 30.6 ± 5.4 % (22 cases). It is believed that most worms infect the liver and lungs. For example, a typical hydatid disease (liver, lung, liver + lung) was observed in 88.9 ± 3.7 % (64 persons), including in the liver in the form of parasitic cysts in 69.4 ± 5.4 % (50 patients). In rare cases, the parasite affects the lungs (right or left), and at the same time both the liver and one of the lungs — 7 cases each (9.7 ± 3.5 %). Echinococcosis of rare localization was detected in 11.1 ± 3.7 % of cases (8 people). Thus, there were registered cases of echinococcosis of the kidneys, subphrenic space, abdomen — 1.4 ± 1.4 % each (1 case). In other cases, the patients had a combined infestation of organs with echinococcus: abdomen + bladder, liver + retroperitoneal space + pelvis, liver + shoulder, liver + psoas + brain, heart + brain + spleen + left kidney — 1.4 ± 1.4 % each (1 case). Conclusions. In recent years, the prevalence of human echinococcosis continues to increase, as evidenced by local cases of infection. The disease mainly affects persons, who had regular contact with dogs which didn’t undergo dehelminthization, who were infected when butchering dead animals and in non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. The disease affects people of different ages and professions. In the diagnosis of echinococcosis, the primary role is played by complex methods — enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, computed tomography and ultrasound examination.


Keywords


hydatid disease; worm infestation; liver; parasite

References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2312-413x.4.09.2015.78825

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