Recognition of Artificially Induced Outbreaks of Infectious Diseases

M.V. Supotnitsky

Abstract


Currently epidemiological approaches to the investigation of biological terrorist attacks are based on the same concepts that are used for epidemiological investigation of epidemic processes (outbreaks) that have natural causes. Therefore, the aim of this paper — to base approaches to identification of artificially induced outbreaks of infectious diseases. It is found that artificial epidemic processes (outbreaks) have distinct epidemiologic, etiologic and clinical aspects. Currently there are two types of artificial epidemic process development: 1) when the biological agent is used once by criminals; 2) when it is used repeatedly. Characteristic features of the epidemic process of the first type can be regarded compressed epidemic curve with a peak of incidence fit into the average value of the incubation period of the disease, and localization of an epidemic outbreak (epidemiology of point source). The second type is characterized by stretched epidemic curve far exceeds the duration of the incubation period of the disease. Common to both types of artificial epidemic process will be impossible epidemiology — feature of artificial epidemic processes, indicating that in nature there are no conditions for their development, and impossible clinical form of a disease, ie clinical form not occurring under natural infection, such as pathology of fine aerosol, which may be caused only by spray with a dispersed phase of 1–5 microns. In an epidemiological investigation of artificially induced outbreak of infectious disease there are three phases: the collection of epidemiological data, descriptive and analytical stage. Analysis of features of lesions by microorganisms that are potential agents of biological weapons, has shown that clinic, pathoanatomy, pathohistology, molecular genetic research methods provide sufficient information to recognize the artificial nature of such outbreaks of infectious disease. However, their specificity is that in fact they form an independent (third) part of epidemiology, which has its own methodology, goals and objectives — epidemiology of artificial epidemic processes and biological lesions.


Keywords


biological terrorist attack; epidemiology; smallpox; hemorrhagic fever; glanders; melioidosis; plague; anthrax

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2312-413x.2.03.2014.82411

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