Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases
Keywords:herbal medicine, acute respiratory viral infectionherbal medicine, acute respiratory viral infection
Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance symptoms (nausea, vomiting, itching, altered defecation) after receiving medicinal plant its use should be discontinued; pediatricians should not recommend using herbs with potential toxic effects (for example, high concentrations or prolonged use of shoots of wild rosemary, tansy and other). The dosage is a very important question, which depends on the age of a child. The scheme proposed by N.P. Menshikova et al. is convenient for practice. The daily dose in terms of dry plant material is: for сhildren under 1 year old — 1/2 teaspoon, from 1 to 3 years — 1 teaspoon, 3 to 6 years — 1 dessert spoon, 6 to 10 years — 1 tablespoon, 10 and older — 1–2 tablespoons. In case of the appointment of herbal medicine pediatrician should take into account the characteristics of the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants, their dosing and possible side effects; it is necessary to monitor treatment to assess its efficacy and safety. In the treatment of respiratory diseases inhalation is effective, using inhalation devices. Aerosol inhalation for treatment of respiratory disease may have different effects: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, a bronchodilator, and may promote the liquefaction of sputum evacuation, improve the function of the ciliated epithelium. For the purpose of inhalations medicinal plants containing essential oils are used: Calendula, Peppermint, Chamomile, Salvia, Eucalyptus, Thyme, birch, Plantain. The first inhalation lasts for 1–2 minutes and later 5–10 minutes. Also ready officinal herbal drugs can be used in pediatric practice: essential oils, teas, juices. A good effect of essential oil of Peppermint, Eucalyptus, Salvia and others, tincture of Calendula, Eucalyptus, Salvia, Peppermint. Relative contraindications are considered: a) allergic conditions in children, b) acute, life-threatening conditions and diseases, c) pregnancy — for medicinal plants causing changes in hormonal balance. In pediatric practice, taking into account the characteristics of acute respiratory viral infections the medicinal plants of several pharmacological groups mainly used are: plants with a tonic effect (plants containing vitamins and minerals — rose hips, black currant, sea buckthorn, citrus fruits), adaptogens and immune modulators should be used in pediatric practice with caution (Ginseng, Rhodiola Rosea, Aralia Manchurian), plants containing biogenic stimulators — the aloe latex, kalanchoe, plant with bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect (sage leaves drug, eucalyptus switchgrass), plants with anti-inflammatory effect, containing tannins — oak bark, Potentilla rhizome, rhizome of Polygonum snake, burnet, alder cones, etc; plants containing essential oils, azulene derivatives — Chamomile flowers; plants containing mucus — Farfara leaves, Plantain; Linden flowers; plants with antipyretic and diaphoretic action — plants containing vitamins (fruits of raspberry, black currant fruit, cranberry); plants containing salicylic acid derivatives — Viola tricolor, raspberry fruit; plants with protective, emollient, expectorant action containing mucus — Farfara leaves; Linden flowers, plantain leaves are large; containing alkaloids, with antitussive effect —codeine phosphate; glaucine hydrochloride grass of Thermopsis lancet; bronchodilators plants; plants with anti-allergic effect, containing flavonoids — herb of Viola tricolor, the roots of Licorice. The article presents the recommendation of professor O.D. Barnaulov, a pediatric phytotherapist O.A. Daniluk on herbal medicine using in children, the rules of the certain medicinal plants use by Y.I. Korshikova, dosage regimen for herbal remedies for children, proposed by N.P. Menshikova, as well as practical advice on drafting phytospecies for the treatment and prophylaxis of acute respiratory viral infections and prescribing proposed by phytotherapist O.V. Kostareva.
Vinogradova TA, Gazhev BN, Vinogradov VM, Martynov VA. Polnaja jenciklopedija prakticheskoj fitoterapii. [Complete Encyclopedia of practical herbal medicine]. Sankt-Peterburg: "Neva", "Olma-Press", "Valeri SPD; 1998. 640р. (in Russian).
Pronchenko GE. Lekarstvennye rastitel'nye sredstva. [Medicinal herbal remedies]. Moskva: GJeOTAR-MED; 2002. 228р. (in Russian).
Uchajkin VF. Rukovodstvo po infekcionnym boleznjam u detej. [Guidance on infectious diseases in children]. Moskva: GJeOTAR-MED; 2004. 824р. (in Russian).
Barnaulov OD. Fitoterapija prostudnyh zabolevanij. [Phytotherapy of colds]. Sankt-Peterburg: "Neva", "Olma-Press", "Valeri SPD; 1998. 158р. (in Russian).
Korshikova Ju.I. Fitoterapija ostrogo bronhita. Uchebnoe posobie. [Phytotherapy for coughs in children. Тutorial]. Moskva: RMAPO; 2005. 31р. (in Russian).
Korsun VF, Korsun EV, Ogrenich NA. Lekarstvennye rastenija v pediatrii. [Herbs in Pediatrics]. Moskva; 2014. 212р. (in Russian).
Safina AI. Тreatment оf Cough in frequently ill children suffering from acute respiratory infections. Problems of modern pediatrics. 2014;13(1):88–91. (In Russian)
Kemmerich B. et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adult suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough // ArzneimForschDrugRes. 2006;56(9):652–660.
Daniljuk OA. Prakticheskaja iridodiagnostika i fitoterapija. [Practical iridology and herbal medicine ]. Rostov n/D.: «Feniks»; 2006. 608р. (in Russian).
Barnaulov OD. Elements herbal strategies in children often suffering from respiratory viral infections.Classic phytoadaptogens. Traditional medicine. 2015;3(42):32–34. (In Russian).
Promyslova EA, Selimzjanova LR, Vishnjova EA. Herbal preparations for coughs in children. Pediatric Pharmacology. 2013;10(1):74–77. (In Russian).
Copyright (c) 2017 ACTUAL INFECTOLOGY
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.