Acute respiratory infections in adults in the practice of primary care physician

J.E. Vasquez Abanto, A.E. Vasquez Abanto

Abstract


Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the most common infectious diseases affecting all age groups, but primarily children under 5 years, adults older than 65 years or people with risk factors and serious chronic processes that increase the risk of complications and severe forms of the disease. According to the WHO, in its Bulletin N°310 dated May 2014, infections of the lower respiratory tract were one of the 10 causes of death in the world in 2012. In the U.S., the rate of death from influenza and its complications averages 20 thousand people annually, and the direct costs of treatment of patients with influenza is 1–3 billion dollars, indirect — 10–15 billion a year. In Ukraine, every year ARI hurts 10–14 million individuals, accounting for 25–30 % of the total and approximately 75–90 % of infections in the country. Diseases caused by influenza viruses are not more than 8 %. During periods of epidemic rise (in the winter, the peak is mainly observed in February), this figure rises to 25 %. During the epidemic season 2014–2015, ARI affected 3 million 700 thousand people, which was 9.1 % of the total population. The economic damage from the flu is around 400 millions UAH a year. Losses only from a single case of influenza in the country are estimated at the equivalent of $100 (including the costs of temporary incapacity for work, expenses for treatment of complications and the organization of anti-epidemic measures). In acute rhinosinusitis (ARI and ­others), individual and epidemiological approaches of the physician should be combined within his “medical science and professional art”. After conducting a differential diagnosis, the physician decides on the issues related to the admission of the patient to the hospital, consultation to the otolaryngologist, to the outpatient examination (laboratory and instrumental), etc. On the basis of such voluminous and necessary information and recommended base today, “independence and professional freedom of the doctor” still remains crucial.

Keywords


influenza (flu); cold; acute respiratory infectious di­seases; sick leave; epidemic

References


Vasquez Abanto JE, Vasquez Abanto AE. The fight against vector-borne diseases — challenge of the 21st century! (World Health Day — 7 April 2014). Novosti mediciny i farmacii. 2014;5(494):18-19. (in Russian).

WHO. Influenza — Situation Report. Regional Update EW 48, 2016. Available from: http://paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content.

Order of Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 499 from july 16. 2014. On approval and introduction of medical and technological documents for standardization of care for influena and acute respiratory infections. Available from: http://moz.gov.ua/ua/portal/dn_20140716_0499.html. (in Ukrainian).

Order of Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 85 from february 11. 2016. On approval and introduction of medical and technological documents for standardization of care in acute inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract and ear. Available from: http://moz.gov.ua/ua/portal/dn_20160211_0085.html. (in Ukrainian).

WHO. A Manual For Estimating Disease Burden Associated With Seasonal Influenza In A Population. WHO Global Influenza Programme, 2015. Available from: http://www.who.int/influenza/resources/publications/manual_burden_of_disease/en/.

Vasquez Abanto JE, Vasquez Abanto AE, Arellano Vasquez SB. Technologizing and standardization in healthcare. Problems of standardization in health care. 2015;11-12:19-23. (in Russian).

Baranaeva EA. Acute respiratory viral infections in children: clinical features, current potential of prevention and treatment. Meditsinskie novosti. 2015;12:7-10. (in Russian).

Smirov VS. Profilaktika i lechenie grippa i ostryih respiratornyih virusnyih infektsiy [Prevention and treatment of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections]. SPb.: Ajsing; 2012. 56 p. (in Russian).

Marushko JV, Moskovenko ED. Acute respiratory infections. Effect of ibuprofen on the main symptoms of acute respiratory infections in children. Ukraїns'kij medichnij chasopis. 2016;1(111):79-82. (in Russian).

Recommendations for epidemiological surveillance 2016 [Recomendaciones de vigilancia epidemiológica 2016]. Available from: http://www.intramed.net/contenidover.asp?contenidoID=89149. Accessed: May 23, 2016.

WHO. Pneumonia. Fact sheet N°331 Updated November 2014. OMS. Available from: http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs331/en/.

ESWI The Third European Influenza Summit. Summit reports. The European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI). May 2. 2013. Brussels, 44 p. Available from: http://eswi.org/flusummit/wp-content/uploads/sites/11/2015/11/eswi-flu-summit-2013-report.pdf.

Malo Sanchez DC, Pulido Domínguez PA, Barbosa Ramírez J et al. Acute Respiratory Infection [Infección respiratoria aguda]. Protocolo de Vigilancia en Salud Pública. PRO-R02.010. Mayo; 2016. 49 p. (in Spanish).

WHO. The 10 leading causes of death in the world. WHO. Fact sheet N°310. Available from: http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/. Accessed: May, 2014.

Yon C. Epidemiological situation of acute respiratory infections (ARI), pneumonia and SOB (asthma) in Peru up to EW 18 - 2016 [Situación epidemiológica de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA), neumonías y SOB (asma) en el Perú hasta la SE 18 - 2016]. 2016;25(18):364-366. (in Spanish).

Health Situation Analysis of Peru 2012 [Análisis de Si­tuación de Salud de Perú 2012]. Ministerio de Salud del Perú. Dirección General de Epidemiología. Setiembre 2013. 136 p. (in Spanish).

Community-acquired pneumonia in children: prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and prevention: Scientific-practical program. M.: Rossijskoe respiratornoe obshhestvo, Federacija pediatrov stran SNG, Moskovskoe obshhestvo detskih vrachej; 2011. Available from: http://pedklin.ru/images/uploads/pages/Pnevmoniya.pdf. (in Russian).

Zvereva NN. Causal treatment of acute respiratory infections of bacterial etiology. Russkij Medicinskij Zhurnal. 2015;22:1322-1327. (in Russian).

De São José BP, Camargos PA et al. Primary care physicians’ ability to diagnose the most prevalent respiratory diseases. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016;20(10):1392-1398. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.16.0294

UNІAN Zdorov’e (2015). In Ukraine influenza and SARS ill with more than 9% of the population. Available from: http://health.unian.net/country/1051568-v-ukraine-grippom-i-orvi-pereboleli-bolee-9-naseleniya.html (in Russian). Accessed: March 4, 2015.

WHO. Influenza (Seasonal)/WHO. Fact sheet. November 2016. Available from: http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs211/en/.

WHO. Preparation and answer to the emergencies [Preparación y respuesta ante emergencias]. December, 2016. Available from: http://who.int/csr/don/archive/disease/influenza/es/. Accesed: February 28, 2017. (in Spanish).

Gorenkov RV. Acute respiratory infections and influenza — methods of struggle. Medicinskij nauchno-prakticheski. Lechashhij vrach. 2012;03:29-33. (in Russian).

Eccles R. Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5(11):718-25.

Acute respiratory infections of the adult. Guide for the health team [Infecciones respiratorias agudas del adulto. Guia para el equipo de salud]. Direccion de epidemiologia, Ministerio de Salud - Republica Argentina, 2009. 58 p. (in Spanish).

Jary H, Simpson H et аl. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 1;11(12):e0167656. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167656. eCollection 2016.

WHO. World Health Organization Surveillance case definitions for ILI and SARI. Case definitions for Influenza surveillance. WHO. As of January 2014. Available from: http://who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/ili_sari_surveillance_case_definition/en/.

WHO. Global Epidemiological Surveillance Standards for Influenza. World Health Organization, 2013. ISBN 978 92 4 150660 1. 84 p. Available from: http://who.int/influenza/resources/documents/WHO_Epidemiological_Influenza_Surveillance_Standards_2014.pdf.

Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ et al. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. Rhinology. 2012;50(1):1-12. doi: 10.4193. Rhino50E2. Rhinology supplement. 2012;23:1-298. doi: 10.4193/Rhino50E2.

Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013. Fasc. 1. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4.

Valenzuela-Sánchez F, Valenzuela-Méndez B, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez JF, Rello J. Personalized medicine in severe influenza. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;35(6):893-7. doi: 10.1007/s10096-016-2611-2. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

WMA Declaration on Physician Independence and Professional Freedom. Adopted by the 38th World Medical Assembly Rancho Mirage, CA, USA, October 1986 and rescinded at the WMA General Assembly, Santiago 2005. Available from: http://www.wma.net/es/30publications/10policies/20archives/f9/index.html (http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_326).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2312-413x.5.1.2017.98775

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 ACTUAL INFECTOLOGY

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© Publishing House Zaslavsky, 1997-2017

 

 Яндекс.МетрикаSeo анализ сайта Рейтинг@Mail.ru